TURNED THE CORNER
Ships that had sailed past the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn were said to have 'turned the corner'.
UP THE POLE
The pole was a mast of a ship. Climbing it was dangerous and, not surprisingly, you has to be a bit crazy to go up there willingly. So if you were a bit mad you were said to be up the pole.
A Spinster is an unmarried woman. Originally a spinster was simply a woman who made her living by spinning wool on a spinning wheel. However it was so common for single women to support themselves that way that by the 18th century 'spinster' was a synonym for a middle-aged unmarried woman.
PRIDE GOES BEFORE A FALL
This old saying comes from the Bible, from Proverbs 16:18 'Pride goes before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall'.
According to legend a man named Leofric taxed the people of Coventry heavily. His wife, Lady Godiva, begged him not to. Leofric said he would end the tax if she would ride through the streets of Coventry naked. So she did. Peeping Tom is a much later addition to the story. Everybody in Coventry was supposed to stay in doors with his or her shutters closed. However Peeping Tom had a sneaky look at Godiva and was struck blind.
CUT AND RUN
In an emergency rather than haul up an anchor the sailors would cut the anchor cable then run with wind.